Partial Fractions

We may have to express expressions such as

in the form

Notice first that factorises intoWe can write,

Ignore the first term here and multiply throughout byWe get

after cancellation.

The procedure now is to eliminate the A term by putting x=2

Eliminate the B term by putting x=-4


If we have a denominator which includes anterm which does not factorise, we have to include a term,term in the answer. In general we have one term for every term in the denominator which does not factorise, and for that term, the highest power ofin the numerator is one less than the highest power ofin the numerator.


Multiply out byand cancel to give


Putinto (1) to make the first term on the right hand side zero. We get,

If we putwe eliminate

Now put