Torques and Turning Forces
Torque is a measure of the tendency of a force to cause an object to turn or rotate. The wrench shown above is more likely to turn when a force is applied at B than when it is applied at A even toughbecause the applied torque is greater at B than at A,
For the wrench above the torque at A isand the torque at B isThe wrench above illustrates a special case of an applied force being perpendicular to the distance of the point of application of the force, A from the pivot point O being at a right angle to the Forceand similarly for B. In general there will not be a right angle involved.
The mathematical definition of toque isThe magnitude ofiswhereis the angle betweenandas shown below.