#### Mechanical Advantage and Velocity Ratio

Many parts of the body can be treated as parts of a lever if they involve a pivot at a joint. In general muscles apply forces - the effort - to the parts of a joint. This will result in a turning around the pivot and another force - the load - being...

https://astarmathsandphysics.com/ib-physics-notes/biomedical-physics/4754-mechanical-advantage-and-velocity-ratio.html#### Some Strange Implications of Quantum Mechanics

Quantum m,echanics can have some very strange implications. A particle may be in several places at one. This is a consequence of the state of the particle being described by a wavefunction, with the probability of a particle being in a region of space...

https://astarmathsandphysics.com/university-physics-notes/quantum-mechanics/1641-some-strange-implications-of-quantum-mechanics.html#### The Connectin Between Kinetic Energy in Newtonian and Relativistic Mechanics

In Newtonian mechanics, the momentum and kinetic energy are given by and The relationship between momentum p and kinetic energy is often written as Many equations and concepts in Newtonian mechanics have close analogies in special relativity. For...

https://astarmathsandphysics.com/ib-physics-notes/relativity/1446-the-connectin-between-kinetic-energy-in-newtonian-and-relativistic-mechanics.html#### Quantum Mechanical Operators

and dymamics can be described with the deterministic equations of Newtonian physics. Part of the development of quantum mechanics is the establishment of the operators associated with the parameters needed to describe the system. Some of those operators...

https://astarmathsandphysics.com/university-physics-notes/quantum-mechanics/1637-quantum-mechanical-operators.html#### Mechanical Determinism

Newtonian mechanics is a complete system. Given a state of a system of particles and the mass, velocity and position of each particle, the state of the system – the position and velocity of each particle can be determined at any subsequent or previous...

https://astarmathsandphysics.com/ib-physics-notes/the-history-and-development-of-physics/1317-mechanical-determinism.html#### Mechanical Problems With Second Order Differential Equations

Many problems in mechanics gives rise to second order differential equations as a consequence of Newton's second law of motion, The acceleration a is actually the second differential of position with respect to time, so any problem involing...

https://astarmathsandphysics.com/a-level-maths-notes/m5/3669-mechanical-problems-with-second-order-differential-equations.html#### Representing a Mechanical System in Matrix Form

Consider two masses connected between two fixed blocks by three springs. Initially the system is in equilibrium and all the springs are in tension. The masses are given small pushes and start to vibrate. The net force on mass 1 is...

https://astarmathsandphysics.com/university-maths-notes/matrices-and-linear-algebra/4710-representing-a-mechanical-system-in-matrix-form.html#### Mechanism of X - Ray Attenuatino

When an X – ray hits a material, it generally penetrates the material and it's energy is gradually reduced as it passes through the matter. There are several mechanisms via which this may happen, summarised in the table below. Note that = attenuation...

https://astarmathsandphysics.com/a-level-physics-notes/electrons-and-photons/2660-mechanism-of-x-ray-attenuatino.html#### IB Physics Notes - Mechanics

https://astarmathsandphysics.com/ib-physics-notes/mechanics.html#### University Physics Notes - Classical Mechanics

https://astarmathsandphysics.com/university-physics-notes/classical-mechanics.html#### University Physics Notes - Fluid Mechanics

https://astarmathsandphysics.com/university-physics-notes/fluid-mechanics.html#### University Physics Notes - Quantum Mechanics

https://astarmathsandphysics.com/university-physics-notes/quantum-mechanics.html#### The Mechanics of Atomic Spectra

In an atom, electrons occupy orbits, each with a particular energy. The orbits and energies are specific to each element. This energy is negative because the electron and nucleus are oppositely charged, so attract each other and energy must be given to...

https://astarmathsandphysics.com/ib-physics-notes/atomic-and-nuclear-physics/1230-the-mechanics-of-atomic-spectra.html#### The Mechanism of Light Production by a Gas Discharge Tube

Gas is normally not a good conductor of electricity. The molecules of the gas are electrically neutral and the gas contains very few ions. This means that in order for a gas to conduct electricity, a source of electrons is needed. In a gas discharge...

https://astarmathsandphysics.com/o-level-physics-notes/262-the-mechanism-of-light-production-by-a-gas-discharge-tube.html#### The Mechanism of Lightning Production

Static electricity is commonly produced when insulating materials rub together. When fur is rubbed against an ebonite rod, the fur becomes negatively charged and the rod becomes positively charged. Electrons are transferred from one material to the rod...

https://astarmathsandphysics.com/o-level-physics-notes/261-the-mechanism-of-lightning-production.html#### Principle of Least Action

principle that can be used to obtain the equations of motion for that system in a way that is independent of Newtonian mechanics. The action principle is preceded by earlier ideas in surveying and optics. The rope stretchers of ancient Egypt stretched...

https://astarmathsandphysics.com/university-physics-notes/classical-mechanics/1530-principle-of-least-action.html#### Postulates

to 1. Thewavefunction must be single-valued, continuous, and finite. Postulate 2. To every observable in classical mechanics therecorresponds a linear, Hermitian operator in quantum mechanics.If we require that the expectation value of an operator...

https://astarmathsandphysics.com/university-physics-notes/quantum-mechanics/1634-postulates.html#### The Born Interpretation

The fundamental equation of quantum mechanics is the Schroedinger equation. It was introduced as a wave equation which did not contradict the relation between the energy and the momentum of a particle in classical mechanics. As a result, the wave...

https://astarmathsandphysics.com/university-physics-notes/quantum-mechanics/1647-the-born-interpretation.html#### The Einstein Rosen Podolsky Experiment

other. We have a source that emits electron-positron pairs, with the electron sent to destination A. According to quantum mechanics, we can arrange our source so that each emitted pair occupies a quantum state called a spin singlet. This can be viewed...

https://astarmathsandphysics.com/university-physics-notes/quantum-mechanics/1649-the-einstein-rosen-podolsky-experiment.html#### Angular Momentum Operators and Commutation Relations in Quantum Physics

In is one of the fundamental differences of quantum physics with classical mechanics that in the quantum world we cannot know all measurements to absolute precision. Some quantities 'pair up' so absolute knowledge of one precludes absolute knowledge of...

https://astarmathsandphysics.com/university-physics-notes/quantum-mechanics/1625-angular-momentum-operators-and-commutation-relations-in-quantum-physics.html