• #### Range of Masses

The range of masses in the universe is vast, best expressed in terms of orders of magnitude, also called powers of ten. It is often hard to decide how small or large a mass is when expressed in these terms and it is useful to compare such a mass with...

https://astarmathsandphysics.com/ib-physics-notes/measurements-units-uncertainty-and-principles/1346-range-of-masses.html
• #### The Four Fundamental Forces

The properties of the four fundamental forces are summarised in the following table. Mediating Particle Force Relative Strength Range Name Mass Charge Spin Strong 1 Short Gluon 0? 0 1 Electromagnetic Infinite Photon 0 0 1 Weak Short 80.4, 80.4, 91.2...

https://astarmathsandphysics.com/university-physics-notes/subatomic-physics/1621-the-four-fundamental-forces.html
• #### Exchange Particles

At the moment there are only four fundamental forces known to exist – gravity, the electromagnetic force, the strong nuclear force and the weak force Other apparently distinct forces are in fact only different manifestations of these fundamental...

https://astarmathsandphysics.com/ib-physics-notes/quantum-and-nuclear-physics/1425-exchange-particles.html
• #### Uncertainties in Calculations

If the mass of a block is measured as and the volume as then we can work out the density: The largest possible value of the density is The smallest possible value of the density is We can round these to give If the uncertainty in a quantity is then the...

https://astarmathsandphysics.com/ib-physics-notes/measurements-units-uncertainty-and-principles/1350-uncertainties-in-calculations.html
• #### Types of Galaxy

Galaxies can be classified into several different main types: Spiral galaxies are what many people think of as as galaxies, though actually less than 30% of galaxies are spiral. The masses of spiral galaxies range from about a billion to a few trillion...

https://astarmathsandphysics.com/ib-physics-notes/astrophysics/1210-types-of-galaxy.html
• #### The Weak Nuclear Force

One of the four fundamental forces, about a million times weaker than the strong force – hence the name - the weak interaction involves the exchange of the intermediate vector bosons, the W and the Z. Since the mass of these particles is on the order...

https://astarmathsandphysics.com/university-physics-notes/quantum-mechanics/1657-the-weak-nuclear-force.html

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