#### Hypothesis Testing With the Binomial Distribution

If a manufacturer claims superiority for any of their products or a great deal rests the proportion of components that exceed a certain lifetime, then that claim or proportion probably needs to be tested for legitimacy or accuracy. We can test a wide...

https://astarmathsandphysics.com/a-level-maths-notes/s1/3711-hypothesis-testing-with-the-binomial-distribution.html#### Outliers

An outlier of a statistical sample is an extreme value – the very rich man, the dwarf, the Spruce Goose – a large plane built by reclusive billionaire Howard Hughes. It flew only once and now sits in a museum – a monument to people with too much money....

https://astarmathsandphysics.com/a-level-maths-notes/s1/3721-outliers.html#### The Central Limit Theorem

Suppose we have a list of measurements of some quantity from some population. We don't know the underlying distribution, but for some purposes this does not matter. If we are only interested in analysing the mean of the list, there is a very useful...

https://astarmathsandphysics.com/a-level-maths-notes/s1/3740-the-central-limit-theorem.html#### Prediction and Extrapolation

Extrapolationis a bad idea. It involves using a set of data to make predictionsfor data outside the range used to construct a statistical model.Suppose for example that a drug is being tested. The drug is designedto lower cholesterol. The drug is...

https://astarmathsandphysics.com/a-level-maths-notes/s2/3763-prediction-and-extrapolation.html#### Type I and Type Errors - The Power of a Test

Conducting a hypothesis test is by nature an uncertainbusiness. Just be cause you do not reject the null hypothesis, itdoes not mean that the null hypothesis is true. There is in factinsufficient evidence from the hypothesis test to mean that you...

https://astarmathsandphysics.com/a-level-maths-notes/s2/3774-type-i-and-type-errors-the-power-of-a-test.html#### Biased Estimators

An estimator fora statistical parameter issaid to be biased if Bias is often impossible toavoid in practice and must be taken into account when statisicalcalculations are performed. Example: To estimate thenumber, ofnesting birds, scientists catch 100,...

https://astarmathsandphysics.com/a-level-maths-notes/s3/3777-biased-estimators.html#### Estimating Population Mean and Variance From a Sample

In practice most of statisitics involves taking and analysing samples. The most important statistical measures for any sample are the mean and variance (or the standard deviation ). We usually do not know the mean and standard deviation of the...

https://astarmathsandphysics.com/a-level-maths-notes/s3/3782-estimating-population-mean-and-variance-from-a-sample.html#### Unbiased Estimators

An estimator fora statistical parameter issaid to be unbiased if The mean of a sample isan unbiased estimator of the population mean Thiscan be used in a less obvious way in the following example. A bag has 500 beans of twocolours, black and white. A...

https://astarmathsandphysics.com/a-level-maths-notes/s3/3796-unbiased-estimators.html#### The Mann Whitney U Test

The Mann Whitney U test allows the comparison of two independent random samples (1 and 2). The Mann Whitney U statistic is defined as: - where samples of size and are pooled and R i are the ranks of sample 1. U can be resolved as the number of times...

https://astarmathsandphysics.com/a-level-maths-notes/s6/3821-the-mann-whitney-u-test.html#### The Standardised Score

The standardized score is a statistical tool that allows comparison of related quantities that are normally distributed. A very good use is test scores. When a student wishes to compare their own results with everybody elses, they may stanaridize their...

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The paired t test is typically used to analyse whether there is a before and after difference. It is the same population before and after, and the difference for each individual is measured and a mean difference found and analysed for significance. For...

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draw conclusions about whether or not the result of an experiment was significant or not without knowing something about statistics and error analysis. A lot of physics can be done with quite basic maths - just substituting numbers into the right...

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60 children go to school. There are various methods they use – they may walk, go by car, bus or train. The statistics are in the following table. Method of Going to School Frequency Angle Walk 21 Car 15 Bus 20 Train 4 Total 60 360 Because it is for a...

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Gathering statistics involves time and effort. It is a necessary procedure – governments need to know how many schools to build, or policemen to employ, and companies need to know which products people will buy. They could go out and ask everyone, but...

https://astarmathsandphysics.com/gcse-maths-notes/645-sampling-methods.html#### Counting Permutations

Permutations is that part of statistics involving arrangements of objects, some of which fall in the same group and some of which fall in different groups. Each object is distinct from all the other objects, so we can tell each one apart, and if two...

https://astarmathsandphysics.com/ib-maths-notes/counting-permutations-and-combinations/962-counting-permutations.html#### Permutations

Permutations is that part of statistics involving arrangements of objects, some of which fall in the same group and some of which fall in different groups. Each object is distinct from all the other objects, so we can tell each one apart, and if two...

https://astarmathsandphysics.com/a-level-maths-notes/s1/3723-permutations.html#### Hypothesis Testing, Critical Values and Critical Regions

thesecould be written down on the side of a machine and used by someonewho knows nothing about hypothesis testing or statistics. If the nullhypothesis is rejected, the machine could be stopped and checked foralignment for example.. Suppose we are...

https://astarmathsandphysics.com/a-level-maths-notes/s2/3755-hypothesis-testing-critical-values-and-critical-regions.html