Deprecated: Methods with the same name as their class will not be constructors in a future version of PHP; plgContentJComments has a deprecated constructor in /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/plugins/content/jcomments/jcomments.php on line 25 Call Stack: 0.0000 362152 1. {main}() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/index.php:0 0.0634 1211520 2. Joomla\CMS\Application\SiteApplication->execute() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/index.php:49 0.0634 1211520 3. Joomla\CMS\Application\SiteApplication->doExecute() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/src/Application/CMSApplication.php:267 0.2762 4126712 4. Joomla\CMS\Application\SiteApplication->dispatch() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/src/Application/SiteApplication.php:233 0.2778 4154472 5. Joomla\CMS\Component\ComponentHelper::renderComponent() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/src/Application/SiteApplication.php:194 0.2788 4172184 6. Joomla\CMS\Component\ComponentHelper::executeComponent() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/src/Component/ComponentHelper.php:356 0.2790 4202704 7. require_once('/var/www/astarmathsandphysics/components/com_content/content.php') /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/src/Component/ComponentHelper.php:381 0.2802 4225424 8. ContentController->execute() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/components/com_content/content.php:42 0.2802 4225424 9. ContentController->display() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/src/MVC/Controller/BaseController.php:710 0.3558 4903040 10. ContentController->display() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/components/com_content/controller.php:113 0.3601 5095192 11. Joomla\CMS\Cache\Controller\ViewController->get() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/src/MVC/Controller/BaseController.php:663 0.3608 5116120 12. ContentViewArticle->display() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/src/Cache/Controller/ViewController.php:102 0.3744 5313240 13. Joomla\CMS\Plugin\PluginHelper::importPlugin() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/components/com_content/views/article/view.html.php:189 0.3745 5313496 14. Joomla\CMS\Plugin\PluginHelper::import() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/src/Plugin/PluginHelper.php:182

Energy Levels in the Nucleus

The spectrum produced by an element as a result of electron transitions between energy levels is unique to the element. Observation of the spectrum allows us to identify the atom, because lines or gaps in the spectrum correspond to transitions between energy levels. The energy levels are characteristic of the atom, hence so are the differences of the energy levels. These energy levels arise basically because electrons form standing waves around the nucleus.
We can describe electrons in terms of waves. We can also describe neutrons and protons in terms of waves. In the nucleus, neutrons and protons also form standing waves that correspond to certain energies – energy in the nucleus is quantized in the same way as electron energies are quantized in electron shells. In the same way that an electron may move between two energy levels with emission or absorption of a photon with energy equal to the difference between the energies of those energy levels, so may a nucleon (proton or neutron) absorb or emit a photon and move between energy levels in the nucleus.

This is always true. The analogy is obvious if decay results in the emission of aray, but when nuclear decay results in the emission of anparticle for example, the energy levels may be less obvious because energy is often shared between different particles, some of them hard to observe.particles are observed to have a continuous range of energies, even though the decay that produces it is described by the equation

In this equation the neutron and proton have closely defined energy, hence the difference in their energies is closely defined. The energy carried away by theparticle (the electron in the equation above) is not equal to this difference but may have a range of energies. The discrepancy in the energy (and momentum) is resolved by including the antineutrinoThis particle also has energy and momentum and inclusion of this allows conservation of both energy and momentum.