Deprecated: Methods with the same name as their class will not be constructors in a future version of PHP; JCommentsACL has a deprecated constructor in /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/components/com_jcomments/classes/acl.php on line 17 Call Stack: 0.0001 360888 1. {main}() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/index.php:0 0.0507 1211056 2. Joomla\CMS\Application\SiteApplication->execute() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/index.php:49 0.0507 1211056 3. Joomla\CMS\Application\SiteApplication->doExecute() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/src/Application/CMSApplication.php:267 0.1209 4044192 4. Joomla\CMS\Application\SiteApplication->dispatch() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/src/Application/SiteApplication.php:233 0.1223 4071648 5. Joomla\CMS\Component\ComponentHelper::renderComponent() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/src/Application/SiteApplication.php:194 0.1231 4089360 6. Joomla\CMS\Component\ComponentHelper::executeComponent() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/src/Component/ComponentHelper.php:356 0.1231 4106368 7. require_once('/var/www/astarmathsandphysics/components/com_content/content.php') /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/src/Component/ComponentHelper.php:381 0.1239 4114104 8. ContentController->execute() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/components/com_content/content.php:42 0.1239 4114104 9. ContentController->display() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/src/MVC/Controller/BaseController.php:710 0.1677 4526544 10. ContentController->display() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/components/com_content/controller.php:113 0.1705 4612096 11. Joomla\CMS\Cache\Controller\ViewController->get() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/src/MVC/Controller/BaseController.php:663 0.1712 4633024 12. ContentViewArticle->display() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/src/Cache/Controller/ViewController.php:102 0.2762 9714016 13. JEventDispatcher->trigger() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/components/com_content/views/article/view.html.php:199 0.2764 9714416 14. plgContentJComments->update() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/joomla/event/dispatcher.php:160 0.2764 9714416 15. plgContentJComments->onContentAfterDisplay() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/joomla/event/event.php:70 0.2766 9722664 16. plgContentJComments->onAfterDisplayContent() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/plugins/content/jcomments/jcomments.php:339 0.2768 9724360 17. JComments::show() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/plugins/content/jcomments/jcomments.php:282 0.2775 9757448 18. JCommentsFactory::getACL() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/components/com_jcomments/jcomments.php:188 0.2775 9757848 19. spl_autoload_call() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/components/com_jcomments/classes/factory.php:274 0.2776 9757928 20. JLoader::load() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/components/com_jcomments/classes/factory.php:274

Amplitude Modulation (AM) and Frequency Modulation (FM)

The are tow basic methods of producing radio waves by radio transmitters: amplitude modulation (AM), and frequency modulation (FM).

Amplitude modulation superimposes the signal to be transmitted onto a high frequency carrier wave. The displacement of the resulting wave is the sum of the displacements of the individual waves.

Frequency modulation varies the frequency of the modulated wave instead of the amplitude.

Frequency modulated waves are less prone to interference than amplitude modulated waves, and are frequently used by music stations which require high quality signals. In contrast, radio stations consisting of news and discussion programs find amplitude modulation sufficient.

Add comment

Security code
Refresh