Deprecated: Methods with the same name as their class will not be constructors in a future version of PHP; plgContentJComments has a deprecated constructor in /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/plugins/content/jcomments/jcomments.php on line 25 Call Stack: 0.0000 362552 1. {main}() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/index.php:0 0.0500 1211976 2. Joomla\CMS\Application\SiteApplication->execute() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/index.php:49 0.0500 1211976 3. Joomla\CMS\Application\SiteApplication->doExecute() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/src/Application/CMSApplication.php:267 0.1197 4127544 4. Joomla\CMS\Application\SiteApplication->dispatch() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/src/Application/SiteApplication.php:233 0.1210 4155224 5. Joomla\CMS\Component\ComponentHelper::renderComponent() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/src/Application/SiteApplication.php:194 0.1218 4172936 6. Joomla\CMS\Component\ComponentHelper::executeComponent() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/src/Component/ComponentHelper.php:356 0.1220 4203456 7. require_once('/var/www/astarmathsandphysics/components/com_content/content.php') /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/src/Component/ComponentHelper.php:381 0.1230 4226176 8. ContentController->execute() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/components/com_content/content.php:42 0.1230 4226176 9. ContentController->display() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/src/MVC/Controller/BaseController.php:710 0.1921 4908008 10. ContentController->display() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/components/com_content/controller.php:113 0.1958 5100160 11. Joomla\CMS\Cache\Controller\ViewController->get() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/src/MVC/Controller/BaseController.php:663 0.1964 5121088 12. ContentViewArticle->display() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/src/Cache/Controller/ViewController.php:102 0.2077 5322448 13. Joomla\CMS\Plugin\PluginHelper::importPlugin() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/components/com_content/views/article/view.html.php:189 0.2077 5322704 14. Joomla\CMS\Plugin\PluginHelper::import() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/src/Plugin/PluginHelper.php:182

The Four Fundamental Forces

The properties of the four fundamental forces are summarised in the following table.

 

 

 

Mediating Particle

Force

Relative Strength

Range

Name

Mass

Charge

Spin

Strong

1

Short

Gluon

0?

0

1

Electromagnetic

Infinite

Photon

0

0

1

Weak

Short

80.4, 80.4, 91.2 resp

1

Gravity

Infinite

Graviton

0

0

2

There are several things to note:

Both gravity and the electromagnetic force have infinite range. The mediating particle of both these forces are stable and do not decay spontaneously. This means that the flux of the force particles through a sphere drawn around the source of the force is a constant no matter how big the sphere, and this implies the force must obey alaw.

The weak force is mediated by massive particles. We may find the approximate range of the weak force using Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle for virtual particles

We can estimate the range of the force now by assuming the force particles travel at the speed of light for this time.

This approach is general and can be used to estimate the range of forces from the masses of the mediating particle.