**Complex Fractions**

Typically we have to express a complex fractionin the formWe do this by multiplying top and bottom by the complex conjugate of the denominator, remembering thatThe complex conjugate of

Example: Expressin the form

**Argand Diagrams**

We may also have to plot complex numbers on an Argand diagram. This is a normal set of axes:is plotted as the pointIn the diagram below the complex numbers plotted as the point

**Magnitudes, Arguments and the Polar Form of Complex Numbers**

The magnitude of

the argument of

The polar form ofis written as

**Multiplying Complex Numbers**

Given two complex numbersandwe can find the product

We can express this in polar form as above,

then

Or we can expressandin polar form then using the normal rules for multiplying exponentials:

so

**Dividing Complex numbers**

We can use the method of the top of the page to express in cartesian form, or, if we require polar form, using the normal rule for dividing exponentials: