The Inverting Voltage Amplifier

If a voltage is applied to the inverting input of an operational amplifier and the non inverting input is earthed, we may simultaneously amplify and invert the voltage. For the op – amp to work as an amplifier the voltagebetween the input terminals (+ and -) in the diagram below must be less than 150 microVolts. This can be achieved by suitable choices ofandin the circuit below.

The resistoris part of a feedback loop. The feedback is out of phase with the input (the – input is inverting), so the feedback is negative. The maximum value ofwill be 150 microVolts when the output is(the saturated voltage), so we may taketo be zero. The voltage acrossis thenand the voltage acrossisbut of opposite sign. Almost no current flows through the op – amp so the current throughequals that throughand we can write

The voltage or closed loop gain of the amplifier is then given by

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