• Important Points to Remember When Drawing Ray Diagrams For Lenses

    When constructing ray diagrams to find the position and nature of the image formed by a lens, we draw the paths followed by three rays. As soon as this is done, the paths followed by all other rays can be inferred. The rays whose paths are drawn are...

  • Drawing Ray Diagrams For Thin Lenses

    Convergent Lens Figure 1 Real Image formation by a Convergent Lens A convergent lens has two foci, F 1 and F 2 , located on its axis. These will lie on the lens axis at a common distance form the lens. The distance from the focal points to the lens...

  • Ray Diagrams and Convex Mirrors

    Object Beyond C Object Between C and F Object Between F and Mirror Object At C Object At F

  • IB Maths Notes - Complex Numbers

  • X - Ray Imaging Intensity, Quality and Attenuation

    The effects of x – rays on matter depend on The intensity of the x – rays, that is the energy per square metre of the target. The quality of the x – ray beam, that is the spread of wavelengths in the beam. If the energy of the beam is absorbed by the...

  • X - Ray Spectra

    X – rays are produced when electrons are accelerated through a high voltage and hit a target. The x – rays emitted from a material contain a range of frequencies. A typical X – ray spectrum is shown below. The X - ray spectrum consists of a continuous...

  • Using a Cathode Ray Oscilloscope

    A cathode ray oscilloscopes is used to display electric voltages and waveforms. It does this using the x – axis as the time axis and the y – axis as the voltage axis: Not each square is 1 cm by 1 cm. When it is switched on it displays just a horizontal...

  • Using a Cathode Ray Oscilloscope

    A cathode ray oscilloscope is used to display electric voltages and waveforms. It does this using the x – axis as the time axis and the y – axis as the voltage axis: Not each square is 1 cm by 1 cm. When it is switched on it displays just a horizontal...

  • Antimatter

    Every form of matter has an equivalent form of antimatter. If matter and antimatter meet, they annihilate each other to produce energy. Antimatter is rare but can be produced in normal radioactive decay processes. For example, a proton decays into a...

  • Matter and Antimatter

    In particle physics, antimatter is the extension of the concept of the antiparticle to matter, where antimatter is composed of antiparticles in the same way that normal matter is composed of particles. For example, an anti electron (also called...

  • Compton Scattering

    Compton scattering is a type of scattering that X-rays and gamma rays undergo in matter. The elastic scattering – implying conservation of energy - of photons in matter results in a decrease in energy (increase in wavelength)of an X-ray or gamma ray...

  • Real and Virtual Images

    The image formed by reflection in a plane mirror is described as a virtual image. The image formed by the light that passes through a converging lens is a real image. The term 'virtual image' is used to describe an image formed by rays of light that do...

  • Proof that the Focal Length of a Spherical Mirror is Half the Radius of Curvature

    The focal length of a spherical mirror is the distance of the point on the principal axis from the mirror that a ray of light initially passing parallel to the axis (and towards the mirror) would pass through on reflection. This is the distance in the...

  • Refraction and Spectra

    You have probably seen how white light produces a spectrum when it passes through a glass block: This is due to the phenomenon of refraction. When waves pass from one medium to another, the direction and speed of the waves may change. The change may...

  • Minkowski Diagrams

    Minkowski diagrams allow the path of particles through spacetime to be visualized. Though spacetime is four dimensional, Minkowski diagrams display only two of these, one of which is the time axis, which points upwards. The path of a particle is a line...

  • The Formation of Images By a Plane Mirror

    If an object A is placed in front of a plane mirror, an image A' will be formed. The image will be The same distance behind the mirror as the object is in front. Virtual – the rays that form the image will only appear to come from the object. In fact...

  • Multiple Images

    Multiple Images may be formed by an arrangement of two or more mirrors. Images Formed in Two Mirrors at Right Angles When two mirrors are inclined at right angles we have not only the images and formed by single reflections but in addition two extra...

  • Refraction of Waves

    Waves are refracted at a boundary between different materials. Any waves may be refracted. The waves change direction, as shown in the diagrams below. When passing from a medium to a 'denser medium', waves are refracted towards the normal. Conversely,...

  • Definition of Terms Used For Lenses

    The following technical terms occur in discussions of lenses. The curvature of each surface of a lens makes it part of a sphere. The centre of curvature of the lens is the centre of this sphere. The principle axis is the line through the centre of the...

  • The Compound Microscope

    The compound microscope consists of two lenses – the objective lens and the eyepiece lens. The first lens (the objective lens) forms a real magnified image of the object. This real image can then be considered as the object for the eyepiece lens which...


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