• Space Telescopes

    Telescopes on Earth do not take the best pictures of planets, stars or galaxies. Light from these objects is scattered by the atmosphere or obscured by light from cities. Even the best Earth based telescopes, situated high on mountaintops far away from...

    https://astarmathsandphysics.com/igcse-physics-notes/420-space-telescopes.html
  • Space Telescopes

    Telescopes on Earth do not take the best pictures of planets, stars or galaxies. Light from these objects is scattered by the atmosphere or obscured by light from cities. Even the best Earth based telescopes, situated high on mountaintops far away from...

    https://astarmathsandphysics.com/gcse-physics-notes/819-space-telescopes.html
  • Summation of Series - Telescoping Series

    In English the expression means sum all the terms in the series from to Often we have a formula for and often the series simplifies in some way. For example a series may telescope. or collapse, with many terms cancelling Example: Find an expression in...

    https://astarmathsandphysics.com/a-level-maths-notes/fp1/3435-summation-of-series-telescoping-series.html
  • The Astronomical Telescope

    An astronomical telescope consists of two lenses. The first lens, the objective lens, focuses parallel rays from a distant object to the focal point of the first lens. The focal points of the objective and eyepiece lenses coincide – this is called...

    https://astarmathsandphysics.com/ib-physics-notes/optics-and-light/1409-the-astronomical-telescope.html
  • The Telescope

    A telescope in normal adjustment is shown above. The objective and eyepiece lenses are separated by a distance equal to the sum of the focal lengths. An object at infinity – a star or planet forms an image at the focal point of the objective lens. The...

    https://astarmathsandphysics.com/a-level-physics-notes/optics/2938-the-telescope.html
  • Measurement of Wavelength Using a Diffraction Grating and a Spectrometer

    Apparatus: Spectrometer, sodium discharge tube with its power supply, diffraction grating, magnifying glass, black cloth light shade. Procedure: (a) Setting up the spectrometer 1. Turn on the sodium lamp (it will take about 5 minutes to fully come on)....

    https://astarmathsandphysics.com/a-level-physics-notes/experimental-physics/2706-measurement-of-wavelength-using-a-diffraction-grating-and-a-spectrometer.html
  • Brown Dwarf Stars

    A sub-stellar object, intermediate in mass between a star and a planet; brown dwarfs – actually dull red in colour - are "failed stars" because they are not massive enough to have initiated hydrogen fusion in their cores. The first brown...

    https://astarmathsandphysics.com/a-level-physics-notes/cosmology/2504-brown-dwarf-stars.html
  • Parabolic Mirrors

    A parabolic mirror is a specially shaped object designed to capture energy and focus it to a single point or distributing energy from a single point. There are alos parabolic dishes and parabolic reflectors. The surface of a parabolic mirror is known...

    https://astarmathsandphysics.com/a-level-physics-notes/optics/2925-parabolic-mirrors.html
  • Neptunes Great Dark Spot

    Neptune's Great Dark Spot is an collection of atmospheric phenomena on Neptune similar to Jupiter's Great Red Spot thought to represent a hole in the layers of methane in Neptune's atmosphere. The first one was observed in 1989 by NASA's Voyager probe....

    https://astarmathsandphysics.com/university-physics-notes/planetary-science/1508-neptunes-great-dark-spot.html
  • The Curtis - Shapley Debate

    In the early part of the twentieth century there was much disagreement between astronomers about the structure and size of the Universe. This came to a head in a debate between the astronomers Heber Curtis and Harlow Shapley organised by the National...

    https://astarmathsandphysics.com/gcse-physics-notes/836-the-curtis-shapley-debate.html
  • Euler's Summation Formula

    Euler's summation formula gives a summation of terms in terms of integral plus some residual terms. It is especially useful in describing the asymptotic behaviour of summations. Theorem If has a continuous derivative on the interval where then (1)...

    https://astarmathsandphysics.com/university-maths-notes/number-theory/1963-euler-s-summation-formula.html
  • The Large Scale Distribution of Matter

    Extensive galaxy surveys have shown that galaxies are clustered irregularly in a complicated spider's web manner. The distribution grew from random fluctuations in the distribution of matter in the early Universe, with dense regions acting as seeds for...

    https://astarmathsandphysics.com/a-level-physics-notes/cosmology/2532-the-large-scale-distribution-of-matter.html
  • The Electron

    The electron is a subatomic particle carrying an electric charge of Coulombs – called the fundamental or unit charge, since all free charges are multiples of this charge - and a mass of about 1/1836 the mass of a proton. The electron has spin equal to...

    https://astarmathsandphysics.com/a-level-physics-notes/electrons-and-photons/2663-the-electron.html
  • Life Will Find a Way

    There are billions of galaxies, each with billions of stars, around each stars there may be planets which may have existed for billions of years. It seems that chance may have jumped through billions of hoops to leave us alone in the Universe. To find...

    https://astarmathsandphysics.com/a-level-physics-notes/principles-dimensions-units-and-error-analysis/2981-life-will-find-a-way.html
  • A Brief History of Ideas About the Universe

    Christianity, Jews and Muslims believe that the Universe was made by God in six days. Most religions give some sort of deity the credit for the creation of the Universe. From Greek times until the middle of the sixteenth century is was also believed...

    https://astarmathsandphysics.com/gcse-physics-notes/695-a-brief-history-of-ideas-about-the-universe.html
  • The Age of the Universe

    Until the twentieth century, most people – because this was taught by many religions - thought the Universe was unchanging and eternal. When the fist big telescope were built, ideas soon changed. Astronomers observed all galaxies and clusters of...

    https://astarmathsandphysics.com/gcse-physics-notes/830-the-age-of-the-universe.html
  • Binary Stars

    Our Sun is a single star, but many stars exist in binary systems consisting of two or more stars in orbit around each other (or more accurately, around their common centre of mass). There are different types of binary star – visual, spectroscopic and...

    https://astarmathsandphysics.com/ib-physics-notes/astrophysics/1186-binary-stars.html
  • Galileo's Observations of the Solar System

    Galileo came after Copernicus and added to the evidence in favour of the Copernican model of the solar system. He was the first astronomer to make and use a telescope, He observed There were mountains and craters on the moon, The planet Venus had...

    https://astarmathsandphysics.com/ib-physics-notes/the-history-and-development-of-physics/1308-galileo-s-observations-of-the-solar-system.html
  • The Age of the Universe

    Until the twentieth century, most people – because this was taught by many religions - thought the Universe was unchanging and eternal. When the fist big telescope were built, ideas soon changed. Astronomers observed all galaxies and clusters of...

    https://astarmathsandphysics.com/igcse-physics-notes/426-the-age-of-the-universe.html

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