Ifis a basic trigonometric function –or– then

has periodifisorand periodifis

has maximum value of 1 and minimum value of 1 ifisorandhas no maximum or minimum value ifis
The transformation of graph rules are applied in the usual way. This is illustrated above for This means that the maximum and minimum values ofareandrespectively, and the period ofisthe frequency is
The period and frequency of each curve above are the same since the coefficient ofis the same. The normal transformation rules apply. Adding 1 to sin x moves the curve up 1 and subtractingfrom x moves the curve right