Deprecated: Methods with the same name as their class will not be constructors in a future version of PHP; plgContentJComments has a deprecated constructor in /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/plugins/content/jcomments/jcomments.php on line 25 Call Stack: 0.0001 360784 1. {main}() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/index.php:0 0.1319 1209496 2. Joomla\CMS\Application\SiteApplication->execute() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/index.php:49 0.1319 1209496 3. Joomla\CMS\Application\SiteApplication->doExecute() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/src/Application/CMSApplication.php:267 0.1982 4037000 4. Joomla\CMS\Application\SiteApplication->dispatch() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/src/Application/SiteApplication.php:233 0.1995 4064680 5. Joomla\CMS\Component\ComponentHelper::renderComponent() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/src/Application/SiteApplication.php:194 0.2002 4082392 6. Joomla\CMS\Component\ComponentHelper::executeComponent() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/src/Component/ComponentHelper.php:356 0.2002 4099400 7. require_once('/var/www/astarmathsandphysics/components/com_content/content.php') /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/src/Component/ComponentHelper.php:381 0.2009 4107136 8. ContentController->execute() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/components/com_content/content.php:42 0.2009 4107136 9. ContentController->display() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/src/MVC/Controller/BaseController.php:710 0.2739 4341760 10. ContentController->display() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/components/com_content/controller.php:113 0.2753 4359160 11. Joomla\CMS\Cache\Controller\ViewController->get() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/src/MVC/Controller/BaseController.php:663 0.2759 4380088 12. ContentViewArticle->display() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/src/Cache/Controller/ViewController.php:102 0.2847 4447328 13. Joomla\CMS\Plugin\PluginHelper::importPlugin() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/components/com_content/views/article/view.html.php:189 0.2848 4447584 14. Joomla\CMS\Plugin\PluginHelper::import() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/src/Plugin/PluginHelper.php:182

Bridge Forces Experiment


Metre ruler; 2 x 10N spring balances; set of 100g masses; 2 x clamp-stands with clamps and bosses; three cotton loops



1. Set up the apparatus as shown above. Notice where the spring balances (A and B) are used to support the metre ruler. Place the load of 10 newtons so that distance A = 30cm and distance B = 60cm.

Adjust the positions of the clamps so that the metre ruler appears to be HORIZONTAL.

2. Note down the readings on each of the spring balances in newtons. Add the two readings together.

3. Repeat the above for about seven other different positions of the load. Remember to keep the metre ruler HORIZONTAL.

4. Tabulate your measurements and calculations.

5. Plot a graph of Spring balance reading A (in N) against Distance A (in cm).

Use the same graph above to add, using a different colour, a line for Spring balance B against Distance A.

6. Explain or calculate:

(a) Why the load of 10N is less than the sum of the spring balance readings.

(b) The weight of the ruler.

(c) The variation in the spring balance readings with the position of the load.

7. The diagram below shows a bus about to pass across a bridge that is supported by columns A and B.

Use your measurements and graph to help you answer the questions below this diagram.

When the bus is between the columns:

(a) Describe how the force experienced by column A varies as the bus travels across the bridge.

(b) Describe how the force experienced by column B varies as the bus travels across the bridge.

(c) When does column A experience (i) the maximum; (ii) the minimum force?

(d) When does column B experience (i) the maximum; (ii) the minimum force?

(e) When do the two columns experience the same force?

When the bus passes column B:

(f) How does the force at column A change?

(g) What could happen at column A once the bus has passed column B?

Add comment

Security code