• A Brief History of the Elements

    The ancient Greeks 2,000 years ago thought there were only four elements – earth, air, fire and water. Chemistry was a very primitive affair, since experimental physics was unknown. Instead scientists came to conclusions using reason and deduction....

  • Using Matrices in Cryptography

    Cryptography hiding and uncovering information in codes. Whenever information is required to be sent from one place to another so that even if it were intercepted it would still be secure, it must first be put in the form of some code. When it is...

  • Definitions

    Terms commonly used everyday by ordinary people may have a slightly different meaning in physics. Many people for example confuse velocity and speed. These are not the same, the difference being that velocity is the speed of a body in a certain...


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