## Diodes and Zener Dides

Diodes allow electricity to flow in only one direction. The arrow of the circuit symbol shows the direction in which the current can flow.

### Forward Bias

Electricity uses up a little energy pushing its way through the diode, rather like a person pushing through a door with a spring. This means that there is a small voltage across a conducting diode, it is called the forward voltage drop and is about 0.7V for all normal diodes which are made from silicon. The forward voltage drop of a diode is almost constant whatever the current passing through the diode so they have a very steep characteristic (current-voltage graph).

If the diode is switched around it is said to be in reverse bias. A much larger voltage must be applied to obtain a currnt – maybe 50V. If this is exceeded the diode will fail and pass a large current in the reverse direction, this is called breakdown.

### Bridge rectifiers

There are several ways of connecting diodes to make a rectifier to convert AC to DC. The bridge rectifier is one of them and it is available in special packages containing the four diodes required. Bridge rectifiers are rated by their maximum current and maximum reverse voltage. They have four leads or terminals: the two DC outputs are labelled + and -, the two AC inputs are labelled.

The diagram shows the operation of a bridge rectifier as it converts AC to DC. Notice how alternate pairs of diodes conduct.

### Zener Diodes

Zener diodes are used to maintain a fixed voltage. They are designed to 'breakdown' in a reliable and non-destructive way so that they can be used in reverse to maintain a fixed voltage across their terminals. The diagram shows how they are connected, with a resistor in series to limit the current.

Zener diodes can be distinguished from ordinary diodes by their code and breakdown voltage which are printed on them. Zener diode codes begin BZX... or BZY... Their breakdown voltage is printed with V in place of a decimal point, so 4V7 means 4.7V for example.

Zener diodes are rated by their breakdown voltage and maximum power:

• The minimum voltage available is 2.4V.

• Power ratings of 400mW and 1.3W are common.