Deprecated: Methods with the same name as their class will not be constructors in a future version of PHP; plgContentJComments has a deprecated constructor in /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/plugins/content/jcomments/jcomments.php on line 25 Call Stack: 0.0001 361720 1. {main}() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/index.php:0 0.1326 1210304 2. Joomla\CMS\Application\SiteApplication->execute() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/index.php:49 0.1326 1210304 3. Joomla\CMS\Application\SiteApplication->doExecute() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/src/Application/CMSApplication.php:267 0.2122 4190728 4. Joomla\CMS\Application\SiteApplication->dispatch() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/src/Application/SiteApplication.php:233 0.2136 4218216 5. Joomla\CMS\Component\ComponentHelper::renderComponent() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/src/Application/SiteApplication.php:194 0.2144 4235928 6. Joomla\CMS\Component\ComponentHelper::executeComponent() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/src/Component/ComponentHelper.php:356 0.2146 4266448 7. require_once('/var/www/astarmathsandphysics/components/com_content/content.php') /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/src/Component/ComponentHelper.php:381 0.2156 4289168 8. ContentController->execute() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/components/com_content/content.php:42 0.2156 4289168 9. ContentController->display() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/src/MVC/Controller/BaseController.php:710 0.2661 4970760 10. ContentController->display() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/components/com_content/controller.php:113 0.2697 5162912 11. Joomla\CMS\Cache\Controller\ViewController->get() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/src/MVC/Controller/BaseController.php:663 0.2703 5183840 12. ContentViewArticle->display() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/src/Cache/Controller/ViewController.php:102 0.2818 5384480 13. Joomla\CMS\Plugin\PluginHelper::importPlugin() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/components/com_content/views/article/view.html.php:189 0.2818 5384736 14. Joomla\CMS\Plugin\PluginHelper::import() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/src/Plugin/PluginHelper.php:182 Deprecated: Methods with the same name as their class will not be constructors in a future version of PHP; JCommentsACL has a deprecated constructor in /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/components/com_jcomments/classes/acl.php on line 17 Call Stack: 0.0001 361720 1. {main}() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/index.php:0 0.1326 1210304 2. Joomla\CMS\Application\SiteApplication->execute() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/index.php:49 0.1326 1210304 3. Joomla\CMS\Application\SiteApplication->doExecute() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/src/Application/CMSApplication.php:267 0.2122 4190728 4. Joomla\CMS\Application\SiteApplication->dispatch() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/src/Application/SiteApplication.php:233 0.2136 4218216 5. Joomla\CMS\Component\ComponentHelper::renderComponent() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/src/Application/SiteApplication.php:194 0.2144 4235928 6. Joomla\CMS\Component\ComponentHelper::executeComponent() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/src/Component/ComponentHelper.php:356 0.2146 4266448 7. require_once('/var/www/astarmathsandphysics/components/com_content/content.php') /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/src/Component/ComponentHelper.php:381 0.2156 4289168 8. ContentController->execute() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/components/com_content/content.php:42 0.2156 4289168 9. ContentController->display() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/src/MVC/Controller/BaseController.php:710 0.2661 4970760 10. ContentController->display() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/components/com_content/controller.php:113 0.2697 5162912 11. Joomla\CMS\Cache\Controller\ViewController->get() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/src/MVC/Controller/BaseController.php:663 0.2703 5183840 12. ContentViewArticle->display() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/src/Cache/Controller/ViewController.php:102 0.4094 13807368 13. JEventDispatcher->trigger() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/components/com_content/views/article/view.html.php:199 0.4096 13807768 14. plgContentJComments->update() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/joomla/event/dispatcher.php:160 0.4096 13807768 15. plgContentJComments->onContentAfterDisplay() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/libraries/joomla/event/event.php:70 0.4098 13816016 16. plgContentJComments->onAfterDisplayContent() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/plugins/content/jcomments/jcomments.php:339 0.4100 13817752 17. JComments::show() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/plugins/content/jcomments/jcomments.php:282 0.4107 13850800 18. JCommentsFactory::getACL() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/components/com_jcomments/jcomments.php:188 0.4107 13851200 19. spl_autoload_call() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/components/com_jcomments/classes/factory.php:274 0.4108 13851280 20. JLoader::load() /var/www/astarmathsandphysics/components/com_jcomments/classes/factory.php:274

Bias

If a test statisticis used as an estimate for a population parameterthen in general we will not expect the value ofto equal– the estimator may be biased forThe bias of the estimator is given by

An estimatorfor a population parameteris an unbiased estimator forif

An unbiased estimator is always better than a biased estimator, and an estimator is better in general if the bias is small and/or the variance is small.

For exampleis a biased estimator forbutis an unbiased estimator forThe relationship betweenandisso that The bias ofis then

If we have two estimators for the mean of a population,andwiththenandso bothandare unbiased estimators forbut

and

The variance ofis less than the variance ofsois a better estimator for

Add comment

Security code
Refresh