There are many different designs of bridges but they fall into six main types.
The simplest type is the beam bridge. It can be made stroonger by adding more sections and support.An arch bridge can support heavier weights because they are made from stone or brick which strong in compression.
A girder bridge is a strengthened beam bridge, which uses girders to provide rigidity.
A suspension bridge might have the towers made from concrete, which is stroong in compression and cables made from stell which are strong under tension.
The cantilever bridge is made up of repeating sections held firm by cables, which are strong under tension. They can be supported on concrete towers which are strong in compression, like suspension bridges.
A cable styed bridege is like a beam bridge, with additional strentgth provided by cables.