There are many different designs of bridges but they fall into six main types.
The simplest type is the beam bridge. It can be made stronger by adding more sections and support.An arch bridge can support heavier weights because they are made from stone or brick which strong in compression.
A girder bridge is a strengthened beam bridge, which uses girders to provide rigidity.
A suspension bridge might have the towers made from concrete, which is strong in compression and cables made from steel which are strong under tension.
The cantilever bridge is made up of repeating sections held firm by cables, which are strong under tension. They can be supported on concrete towers which are strong in compression, like suspension bridges.
A cable stayed bridge is like a beam bridge, with additional strength provided by cables.