## Constructing ZDDs

Given a family
$F$
of sets, we can find its ZDD as follows.
• If
$F = \emptyset$
(
$F$
is empty) return
$\bot$
. If
$F = \epsilon$
(
$F$
contains only the empty set) then return
$\top$
.
• Find the smallest element
$v$
amongst all elements in all sets of
$F$
. Create a node
$v$
.
• Let
$F_0$
be the family of all sets in
$F$
not containing
$v($
, that is,
$; F_0 = \{ \alpha : \alpha \in F, v \notin \alpha \}$
. Recursively construct the ZDD for
$F_0($
, and connect the LO edge from
$v$
to the root of
$F_0$
.
• Let
$F_1$
be the family resulting from taking all sets in
$F$
that contain
$v$
and then removing
$v$
from each set:
$F_1 = \{ \alpha\setminus\{v\} : \alpha \in F, v \in \alpha \}$
. Recursively construct the ZDD for
$F_1$
, and connect the HI edge from
$v$
to the root of
$F_1$
.
• Look for identical nodes (same label, same LO desination and same HI destination) and combine them.
• Some families have special properties allowing their ZDDs to be immediately constructed. In a universe of size
$n$
, consider for example the family of all sets of size
$k$
which we denote
$S_k(\{1,...,n\})$
. The ZDD of
$S_2(\{1,2,3\}) = \{ \{1,2\}, \{2,3\}, \{1,3\}\}$
is the following: The ZDD of
$S_k(\{1,...,n\})$
turns out to be easy to describe (exercise).
Here are some more examples. Let
$U = \{1, ..., 6\}$
and
$S = \{2,3,5\}$
. The ZDD of all subsets of
$U$
containing exactly one element of
$S$
is: The ZDD of all sets containing at least one element of
$S$
is: The ZDD of all sets containing at most one element of
$S$
is: These 3 examples are readily generalized. Each can be viewed as a ZDD of all sets that branches off at the smallest element of
$S($
, before joining the main branch again after the largest element of
$S$
has been handled. 