Simple Rational Functions
A simple rational function is any functionof the formwhereandare constants.
We can perform long division on this to obtain
This is a transformation of the graphThe transformation is in three steps:

A translation to the left, the negative– direction, by

A scaling in the direction byIf this expression is negative, then the graph is reflected in the– axis and scaled.

A translation in the– direction by

The asymptotes are also transformed. The– asymptotebecomes the– asymptoteTheasymptotebecomes the– asymptote
Suppose for example that
Proceeding as above,

1. A translation to the left, the negative– direction, by

A reflection in the x – axis and scaling in the direction by

A translation in the– direction byTheandasymptotes becomeandrespectively.
The transformation is shown below.